Center for Integrative Psychiatry

Mental Health and Nutrition: The Connection between Diet and Mood

The Connection between Diet and Mood: Impact of Nutrition on Mental Health


The old adage “you are what you eat” is more than a saying. The food we consume can significantly impact our mental health and well-being. Studies have shown a connection between diet and mood and that what we eat can influence our mental health in both positive and negative ways.

The human brain is a complex organ that requires a steady supply of nutrients to function properly. When we eat a healthy and balanced diet, we provide our brains with the necessary building blocks to support cognitive function, regulate emotions, and maintain mental wellness. On the other hand, a diet lacking essential nutrients can lead to imbalances in the brain that contribute to mood disorders such as anxiety and depression.


So what are the key nutrients that support mental health, and how can we incorporate them into our diets?


Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Omega-3 fatty acids are essential nutrients that play a critical role in brain function and development. Research has shown that omega-3s can reduce inflammation in the brain, increase the production of neurotransmitters, and promote the growth of new brain cells. These factors are important for maintaining healthy cognitive function and emotional well-being.

Sources of omega-3 fatty acids include fatty fish such as salmon and tuna, nuts, and seeds. If you don’t consume enough of these foods in your diet, you may want to consider taking an omega-3 supplement.


Complex Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates often get a bad rap, but they are an important energy source for the body and the brain. Complex carbohydrates such as whole grains, fruits, and vegetables are particularly beneficial for mental health. These foods provide a slow and steady supply of glucose to the brain, which helps to regulate mood and reduce anxiety.

In contrast, simple carbohydrates such as sugar and refined flour can cause a rapid spike in blood sugar levels, leading to mood swings and fatigue.


Vitamins and Minerals

A variety of vitamins and minerals are essential for maintaining mental health. For example, B vitamins such as folate and B12 are necessary to produce neurotransmitters that regulate mood and emotion. Deficiencies in these vitamins have been linked to depression and other mood disorders.

Similarly, minerals such as magnesium and zinc are important for brain function and can have a calming effect on the nervous system. Foods high in these nutrients include leafy green vegetables, whole grains, nuts, and seeds.


The Gut-Brain Connection

In addition to providing the brain with essential nutrients, our food also impacts the gut microbiome. The gut microbiome is a collection of trillions of bacteria that live in the digestive system and play a crucial role in overall health.

Research has shown that the gut microbiome is closely linked to mental health and that imbalances in gut bacteria can contribute to mood disorders. One way to support a healthy gut microbiome is to consume a diet rich in fiber, probiotics, and prebiotics. Foods such as yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut, and whole grains are all excellent sources of these gut-healthy nutrients.


In addition to eating a healthy and balanced diet, it is also important to be mindful of the foods that can have a negative impact on mental health. For example, a diet high in processed foods, sugar, and saturated fats has been linked to an increased risk of depression and anxiety.

By making minor changes to your diet and incorporating more nutrient-dense foods, you can support your mental health and improve your overall well-being.


Parletta, N., Zarnowiecki, D., Cho, J., Wilson, A., Bogomolova, S., Villani, A., Itsiopoulos, C., Niyonsenga, T., Blunden, S., Meyer, B. J. (2017). People with depression use self-help resources more often than those without depression: Implications for mental health professionals. Journal of Mental Health, 26(2), 179–185.


Stahl, S. T., Albert, S. M., Dew, M. A., Lockovich, M., Reynolds, C. F., Rogers, J. C., & Lenze, E. J. (2018). Pilot randomized trial of a therapeutic nutrition intervention to improve mood in middle-aged and older adults. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 24(1), 37-47.

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