Center for Integrative Psychiatry

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) Is A Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation Technique That Uses Magnetic Fields

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that uses magnetic fields to stimulate nerve cells in the brain. It has been widely studied and used in clinical settings to treat various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and chronic pain. One of the main mechanisms of action behind the therapeutic effects of TMS is believed to be its ability to induce neuroplasticity in the brain.

Understanding TMS: Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation with Magnetic Fields

Neuroplasticity is the brain’s ability to change and adapt in response to experience, learning, and environmental stimuli. It involves the formation of new neural connections and the strengthening or weakening of existing ones. The brain’s ability to undergo neuroplastic changes is critical for learning and memory, recovery from injury or disease, and adaptation to changing environments.

TMS works by inducing electrical currents in the brain tissue through magnetic fields. These currents can activate or inhibit specific neural circuits, depending on the frequency and intensity of the stimulation. When applied to specific brain regions, TMS can modulate the activity of those regions and induce neuroplastic changes that can lead to therapeutic effects.

For example, in the treatment of depression, TMS is usually applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a brain region that is known to be hypoactive in depressed individuals. By stimulating the DLPFC with TMS, the activity of this region can be increased, which may lead to improvements in mood and cognitive function. This increase in activity is likely due, at least in part, to neuroplastic changes in the synaptic connections between neurons in the DLPFC.

 

TMS and Neuroplasticity: Modulating Brain Activity for Therapeutic Effects

Several studies have demonstrated the ability of TMS to induce neuroplastic changes in the brain. For example, one study found that repeated TMS sessions can increase the density of dendritic spines, which are small protrusions on the surface of neurons involved in synaptic communication. 

Another study found that TMS can increase the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein critical for neurons’ growth and survival.

The exact mechanisms by which TMS induces neuroplastic changes have yet to be fully understood, but several hypotheses have been proposed. One theory is that TMS induces changes in the levels of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and serotonin, which are involved in neural plasticity. Another hypothesis is that TMS activates intracellular signaling pathways that lead to gene expression in synaptic plasticity.

In conclusion, TMS is a promising tool for inducing neuroplastic changes in the brain. By modulating the activity of specific brain regions, TMS can cause changes in the synaptic connections between neurons, which can lead to improvements in cognitive and emotional functioning. The use of TMS for neuroplasticity modulation is an area of active research, and future studies may reveal new applications and mechanisms of action for this technique.

If you want to learn more about TMS and its potential therapeutic effects, please visit the Center for Integrative Psychiatry website at https://texascip.com/ or contact us to schedule a consultation with one of our experts.

 

Sources:

  1. Lefaucheur, J. P. (2020). Cortical neuroplasticity induced by non-invasive brain stimulation: Achievements and pitfalls. Neurophysiologie Clinique/Clinical Neurophysiology, 50(4), 225-237.
  2. Barker, A.T., Jalinous, R., & Freeston, I.L. (1985). Non-invasive magnetic stimulation of human motor cortex. Lancet, 325(8437), 1106-1107. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(85)92413-4
  3. Bestmann, S., & Feredoes, E. (2013). Combined neurostimulation and neuroimaging in cognitive neuroscience: past, present, and future. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1296(1), 11-30. doi: 10.1111/nyas.12150
  4. Dayan, E., Censor, N., Buch, E.R., Sandrini, M., & Cohen, L.G. (2013). Noninvasive brain stimulation: from physiology to network dynamics and back. Nature Neuroscience, 16(7), 838-844. doi: 10.1038/nn.3422
  5. George, M.S., Wassermann, E.M., & Williams, W.A. (1996). Callahan, A., Ketter, T.A., Basser, P., et al. Daily repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) improves mood in depression. Neuroreport, 7(14), 3057-3061. doi: 10.1097/00001756-199611250-00022
  6. Horvath, J.C., Mathews, J., Demitrack, M.A., & Pascual-Leone, A. (2010). The NeuroStar TMS device: conducting the FDA approved protocol for treatment of depression. Journal of Visualized Experiments, 45, e2345. doi: 10.3791/2345
  7. Loo, C.K., Mitchell, P.B., McFarquhar, T.F., Malhi, G.S., Sachdev, P.S., & Parker, G.B. (2007). Successful application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of major depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 41(9), 762-770. doi: 10.1080/00048670701564323
  8. Rossi, S., Hallett, M., Rossini, P.M., & Pascual-Leone, A. (2009). Safety, ethical considerations, and application guidelines for the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation in clinical practice and research. Clinical Neurophysiology, 120(12), 2008-2039. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2009.08.016

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